Devotional Short Note on Genesis 14


Again this chapter holds a surprise to many readers who did not know its’ historicity. There are extra-biblical sources that support the veracity and historicity of this chapter. Scholars knew about it long ago but at a certain point gave up thinking about the reality of these long-periods mentioned in cuneiform texts. They shelved it as errors or scribal oversights or slips of the eye, ear, hand, tongue or memory. In an article I dealt with important cuneiform texts I discovered that they were accounting their dates and events very accurately but that we as moderns do not know how they calculated. Instead of being skeptical of these handful of long-period texts, I lined them up within history and ended with Amraphel of this chapter as a second earlier Hammurabi or Hammurabi I, of which the later Hammurabi II or lawgiver was the second one. Many old scholars at the beginning of the discovery of these texts thought that there was only one Hammurabi and that these texts refer to the Lawgiver. However, as chronology of Mesopotamia became refined and the Lawgiver Hammurabi was definitely circa 1792 BCE, they then pulled-up their shoulders and said that these handful long-period texts had slips in them. They moved to footnotes in their articles and that is where modern consensus placed them. Without reproducing these academic material here, I refer more serious reader to the article online available in the in (IJRSSH) 2017, Vol. No. 7, Issue No. I, Jan-Mar pages 114-140 especially 118 at

Summarizing my findings I said in the abstract: “

 “In this article five of them are selected. One reference is about 800 years; another one 700 years; still another 600 years and a further one covering a long period of 3200 years, the last which is a case of a need for a better understanding of Ancient Mathematics or Counting systems. These texts were discovered, transliterated, translated and discussed or commented upon by many scholars since the middle of the 19th century. Scholars are divided into two or more camps regarding these periods in cuneiform references: those who tried to find historicity in them taking them at face value; those who reject them as bogus and just “round numbers”. Optimistic scholars and pessimistic scholars are divided by the epistemology they are operating as well as the methodology they are selecting to solve the problems. Those who are skeptical in hermeneutics will not utilize these texts to construct chronology. Those who are affirmative in hermeneutics will try to find solutions.”

The year of Amraphel is counted very carefully with biblical chronology as my findings explained fully in the article and how I calculated it:

“When Abraham was 75 years old he left his country Haran (Genesis 12:4). That was in 2165 BCE. The invasion of the Jordan Salt-sea area valley was probably directly after 2165 BCE, thus between 2165-2153 BCE (Genesis 14:4). In the 13th year they rebelled thus in 2152 BCE. The suppression of the revolt was in the 14th year in 2151 and Lot was taken as well. The disaster to Lot is after the sin of birth of Ismael and the disbelief in God’s ability with the promise through Sarah. In that year 2151 BCE, Melchizedek met Abraham (Genesis 14:18). The incident of the lie in Egypt took place shortly before the invasion of the Jordan area by Amraphel and the others in 2165 BCE. One can almost say the punishment for his lies in Egypt was the invasion of the Jordan valley near the salt-sea. The punishment for the Hagar event was the kidnapping of Lot. Bad foreign practices came in the valley of Jordan and God had to eliminate Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18; 19). This was after 2151 BCE. The relevant time to consider here is the time of Amraphel between 2165-2153 BCE. If the beginning of this invasion is the calculating point of departure for the later cuneiform texts, then 700 years distant from Amraphel = Hammurabi is 1465 BCE for Burnaburiash. He reigned 27 years according to Brinkman’s economic texts analysis: my allocation between 1465-1438 BCE. Kurigalzu followed him for 24 years between 1438-1414 BCE. Nazi-Maruttash followed with 26 years between 1414-1388 BCE. Kadashman-Turgu reigned for 18 years between 1388-1370 BCE. Kadashman-Enlil II reigned for at least 8 years from 1370-1362 BCE. Kudur-Enlil reigned for 8 years between 1362-1354/3 BCE. Šagarakti-Šuriaš reigned for 12/13 years between 1354/3- 1342/1 BCE. A cross-check if the calculation is correct is the Distanzangabe of 800 years between Šagarakti-Šuriaš and Nabonidus and if the biblical orientated dating of 1342/1 is the point of calculating the 800 years to Nabonidus, then that 800 years ended in 541, exactly in the reign of Nabonidus.” (Van Wyk 2017: 119).

The cuneiform counting and the biblical chronology are exactly corresponding. Sofar I am alone in these findings but many scholars are reading the article online at so I presume to hear from them in the future.

Hammurabi or Amraphel is also linguistically possible to be linked. “L. W. King mentioned some in 1907: “Schrader’s suggestion that Amraphel is a corruption of the name of Hammurabi has been regarded, linguistically, as extremely probable; but a difficulty which has stood in the way of its unqualified acceptance has been that the majority of writers on Babylonian history have assigned dates to Hammurabi some centuries earlier than the date of Abraham according to the Biblical chronology,” (L. W. King 1907: 22). King was citing Ryle’s article “Amraphel” in Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible, I, page 88. K. Kitchen voiced his opinion on the equation of Hammurapi and Amraphel. He mentioned scholars who accepted the identification like W. Albright and earlier studies such as K. Jaritz, and also F. Cornelius (1960). Kitchen concluded: “Amraphel is uncertain, but is most unlikely to be Hammurapi” (K. A. Kitchen, Ancient Orient and Old Testament. London: Inter-Varsity Press, 1966. Hbk, page 44). Linguistically he complained that initial ‘aleph-sound in ‘Amraphel is opposed to the initial `ayin in Hammurapi which is thought to be that way because of evidence more than a millennium later at Ugarit. His second objection is the element –l in Amraphel but not in Hammurapi. This second objection can be explained. If Hammurapi’s name was sometimes presented or called by factions in society as d[ingir = god] and that accompanied his name at times, as was common in Mesopotamia, then one would expect that a Semitic form of that rendering would be Amraph-el where the el = god coincides with the dingir = god attached to names in Levant.” (Van Wyk 2017: 115 footnote 6).

What we have so far is a first Hammurabi who’s name ended with the Canaanite god –el because it was the practice in the days of the Babylonians to put dinger = god before the name of important kings. Jews read from right to left and since they put in cuneiform left to right the sign for god =dinger, that would be attached to the end of the name of the King in Hebrew phonics.

The years are 2165-2153 BCE for Amraphel or Hammurabi I. Notice the geographical condition of the climate and surroudings of the Dead Sea in these years in Genesis 13:10: “And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of the Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as you go unto Zoar” = = י  וַיִּשָּׂא-לוֹט אֶת-עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת-כָּל-כִּכַּר הַיַּרְדֵּן כִּי כֻלָּהּ מַשְׁקֶה--לִפְנֵי שַׁחֵת יְהוָה אֶת-סְדֹם וְאֶת-עֲמֹרָה כְּגַן-יְהוָה כְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בֹּאֲכָה צֹעַר. Egypt and the Dead Sea were countries to desired to live. Like the Garden of Eden. Five kings retired here in this “Beverly Hills” of Abraham and Lot’s time. Lot’s wife were very happy there in the “debt-valley of the rich”. Image and show was the name of the game. Fame was connected to how many diamonds and gold the camels outside the house had on their saddles and travel gear. But Lot’s wife was drawn in by these shiny flickering objects.

Genesis 14:3 says that the Dead Sea was the area: “valley of Siddim--the same is the Salt Sea” = אֶל-עֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים  הוּא יָם הַמֶּלַח. These kings from the East with Hammurabi I or Amraphel as the key player, colonized the area for 12 years. Maybe a punishment for Abraham’s lie to Pharaoh Neterkhet of the 2nd Dynasty of Egypt. The one who suffered also a drought and talked about it in his 18th year of his reign in the Famine Stela as seven years of severe drought.

The inhabitants rebelled in the 13th year: “and in the thirteenth year they rebelled” = וּשְׁלֹשׁ-עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, מָרָדוּ. It was the year 2152 BCE. According to strict biblical chronology [calculating the Exodus as 1450 BCE and Solomon’s fourth year as 970 BCE].

The Bible and History are standing side by side and the Hebrews were just as careful about their computations of dates and events in their biblical transmission of texts as the cuneiform scribes were in calculating the exact years between Hammurabi and a Kassite king many years later or between a Kassite king until Nabonidus, the father of Belshazzar of Daniel fame. Gone is the theory of myths and legends or “prehistory” of the first chapters of Genesis. Gone are the uncertainties and “ifs” and “maybes”. It really happened.

In 2151 BCE which is the 14th year “And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, and smote” = וּבְאַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בָּא כְדָרְלָעֹמֶר וְהַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ וַיַּכּוּ. They attacked all the surrounding neigbors of Sodom and Gemorrah valley and then came to the valley itself as well.

These kings of the cities set their battle against the Imperialists “and they set the battle in array against them in the valley of Siddim;”= יַּעַרְכוּ אִתָּם מִלְחָמָה בְּעֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים.

This beautiful “Garden of Eden” valley of Siddim had one problem: slime pits. A good apple with little bad spots. “Now the valley of Siddim was full of slime pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and they that remained fled to the mountain.” = וְעֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים בֶּאֱרֹת בֶּאֱרֹת חֵמָר וַיָּנֻסוּ מֶלֶךְ-סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה וַיִּפְּלוּ-שָׁמָּה וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים הֶרָה נָּסוּ..

“Ismael was circumcised when Abraham was 99 years old in 2141 BCE (Genesis 17:25). At that time Ismael was 13 years old so Ismael was born when Abraham was 86 years old in 2154 BCE (Genesis 16:17).” (Van Wyk 2017: 118).

The error with taking God’s promises in his own hands, Abraham made in the year 2155 BCE so Ishmael was born in 2154 BCE. The rebellion was in 2152 BCE and in 2151 BCE Lot was grabbed as well. “And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed” = וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת-לוֹט וְאֶת-רְכֻשׁוֹ בֶּן-אֲחִי אַבְרָם, וַיֵּלֵכוּ; וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב, בִּסְדֹם (Genesis 14:12).

As punishment for Abraham’s lie and Egypt, colonization of Siddim Valley came. As punishment for Ishmael incident, Lot was captivated and taken away. Abraham had to wage a war to get Lot back again.

God forgives the sinner for his sins, but he consequences of our sins He does not remove.

I wonder if the latest SDA Commentary on Genesis noticed this connection here? I do not have one here in the Orient.

After a very good military tactic Abraham brought the captives back and were victorious over Chedorlaomer and his coalition. As a result many kings came to thank Abraham among them Melchizedek. “And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High.” = וּמַלְכִּי-צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן, לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן. In the word Jeru-salem is a part that may be connected to a priest who was serving in 2151 BCE as a priest for God and he came to Abraham as well. He brought bread and grapejuice to Abraham. Alcohol is out of the question. God and alcohol do not mix. Alcohol is a symbol of sin. It’s effects are also.

After the blessing that God helped Abraham with good tactics, Abraham humbled himself and his own pride of achievements and recognized God in his life by paying tithe (Genesis 14:20) “And he gave him a tenth of all” = וַיִּתֶּן-לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר מִכֹּל.


Dear God

We also want to bring to You from our income a tenth to the House of God and for the ministry of the preachers in Your vineyard. Bless us also.  In Jesus Name. Amen