Old English dōm or also in Old Low German but in Old High German, tuom. It meant: judgment, decision, decree, authority (F. H. Stratmann, p. 171). L. R. Froom (1966) wrote about the “Doom” language in the Old Testament: “The major Hebrew verb roots (such as destroy, perish, consume, cut off, burn up) are literal, and are used to signify the total extinction, or excision, of such [evil] animate beings. Other expressions are figurative, couched in metaphor, simile, symbol, analogy, metonomy, synecdoche, comparison, and allegory” (page 105). Doom is an umbrella statement that includes all these verbs and actions that are going to exterminate in finality.


Methodology and Taxonomy

Doom, see also Hell, Valley of Jehoshaphat, Judgment, and similar references. The word is misused as part of the phrase ‘Doom and Gloom’ expressions to refer derogatory to Seventh-day Adventists style of preaching. Biblically “Doom” is connected to the extermination of all evil in an absolute way in the Hell-event (see Froom 1966, page 105).

The biblical maximalist view is that it refers to the executive judgment of God in the Last Judgment of extermination of all evil in finality. The minimalist view is express by certain scholars that it refers to the destruction of local cities like Jerusalem after analyzing Lamentations with this center in mind.


Fall of local cities descriptions in the Bible

A number of key cities like Sodom and Gemorrah, Egypt at the Exodus in 1450 BCE, Tyre, Edom, Niniveh, Babylon, Jerusalem, are mentioned in the Bible. Also in the Ancient Near East similar fall of city hymns were known. One aspect of all these fall of local cities, whether biblical or Ancient Near East, they fell because of the decision of God or gods.

That is what Doom means. Hell is such a Doom (see the article by L-R. Froom). Cities were Ur in 2004 BCE; Larsa; Eridu; Jericho; Niniveh; Babylon; Tyre; Rome (538 CE); Vatican (1798 CE). All these destructions of power were predicted to prophets and to Daniel the prophet in Daniel 2, 7 and 8 and in Daniel 11:45 of the USA before the Time of Great Trouble starts maybe. Ur fell in 2004 BCE because of divine intervention (Niehaus 2008, page 117).


Contemporary Approaches on Doom

Doom is biblically the Hell. Deniers because evolutionary the earth will become heaven; circumvention strategies like Environmentalism; substitution like attempts to go to Mars; escapism like building bunkers; quietists which either follows a minimalist approach or a maximalist approach. Homiletically there are Doom’s Day preachers and anti-Doom’s Day preachers. Some churches are branded as Doom and Gloom churches. Doom minimalist quietist approach will try to mention it but skip quickly over it. Doom maximalist quietist approach will not mention it at all.


Last Generation Theology a warning to impending Doom and pointer to solution

LGT is part of the make-up of the biblical text. It exists in pockets of all genres. The total picture is consistent and related and the mosaic of Last Day Events can be pieced together like in the charts by Gordon Collier using Ellen White’s descriptions as well. Eschatology did not start late but existed from Genesis to Revelation and Moses was fully aware of it in 1450 BCE in his literature and so was John in Revelation in 97 CE. The extermination of evil event or Hell is part of this prophetic chart of events.

Froom’s description of the Hell event, provides the methodological framework for breaking down the topic.


Linguistic Expressions for Doom in the Bible

Doom for Froom is the Utter Destruction Ultimate Fate of Intractably Wicked (Mal. 4:1) (Froom, 1966 page 105). All linguistic tools are employed throughout the Bible to “enforce this foundational emphasis”. The Ultimate and Utter Destruction of the Wicked Will Forever End the Terrors, Sorrows, and Memories of Sin. Then the Fires Will Go Out (Froom, page 106). There are descriptive words signifying the same event: “Destroy, end, consume, devour, take away, tread down, burn, burn up, cut off, hew down, cut down, break in pieces, quench, go out, extinguish, slay, break down, overthrow, cast down, destroy utterly, sink down in a pit, beat down, melt away, die, mortify, put to death, strike, melt, pluck out, fall dash in pieces, scatter as dust, pass away, trample underfoot root out, bring to nought.” (Froom, 106-107). These are literal expressions. There are figurative expressions as well: “They will be as a vessel broken to pieces, as ashes trodden underfoot, as smoke that vanishes, as chaff carried away by the wind, as tow that is burned, as bundles of dry tares, as thorns and stubble, as vine branches pruned off, as wax that is melted, as the fat of sacrifices' all combustible and all destructible by fire…. the wicked will pass like the morning cloud, like the early dew, like a dream when one awakens. Other figures in the Scripture symbolism are: the lost sheep, threatened with speedy death by hunger and thirst or the wolf's jaws; the withered tree, without root or branch; the garment that is moth-eaten; the axe and the fire, and the leprosy that consumes the tissues. Everywhere and always the concept prevails of the decomposition, of the breaking up of the organism and final cessation of the existence of being never that of immortal life in endless suffering” (Froom, page 107).


Key biblical chapters for Doom

Key chapters of these expressions are listed by Froom: Psalm 37:1-2; 9; 20; 22; 28; 34; 36; 38. Also Job 18:5; 6; 12; 13; 16; 17; 18. Also Job 20:9ff. “The eye . . . shall see him [the doomed] no more” = עַיִן שְׁזָפַתּוּ וְלֹא תוֹסִיף.


Doom means destruction in completeness

The completeness of destruction of the being is indicated in the following way:

We here list alphabetically for reference some seventy variant expressions denoting the one thought of "destruction," "perishing," "consumption by fire," "turning to ashes," and "cessation of being," as portraying the fate of the wicked. Note the impressive, cumulative array:

The picture that the Old Testament paints of the Doomed can be summarized in the list provided by Froom:

“Ashes under soles of feet, Mal. 4:3. Be as though they had not been, Obadiah 16; Job 20:9; Ps. 37:10. Be no more, Ps. 104:35; Prov. 10:25. Become as nothing, Isa. 41:11, 12. Blossom go up as dust, Isa. 5:20-24. Blot out name forever, Ps. 9:5. Blot out of existence, Deut. 29:20; Ps. 69:28. Break in pieces, Job 34:24; Ps. 2:9. Bring down to pit of destruction, Ps. 55:23. Burn like tow, Isa. 1:31. Burn them up, Mal. 4:1. Burned up as cut thorns, Isa. 33:12. Candle of wicked put out, Job 21:17. Cast down to destruction, Ps. 73:18. Cast down, unable to rise, Ps. 36:12. Cast off forever, 1 Chron. 28:9. Chaff which wind drives away, Ps. 1:4. Chased out of world, Job 18:18. Consume, Ps. 59:13; 104:35; Isa. 29:20. Consume away into smoke, Ps. 37:20. Consumed, Job 22:20. Consumed out of the earth, Ps. 104:35. Cut down like grass, Ps. 37:2. Cut off, Ps. 37:9, 22, 28, 34; 94:23; Prov. 2:22; Nahum 1:15. Cut off remembrance from earth, Ps. 34:16. Dash in pieces, Ps. 2:9. Destroy, Ps. 145:20; Prov. 13:13. Destroyed forever, Ps. 52:5; 92:7. Destroy utterly, Ex. 22:20; Ps. 21:10. Devour, Ps. 50:3. Devour as stubble, Nahum 1:10. Die, Eze. 18:4, 20. Dissolved, Ps. 75:3. Driven away like chaff, Ps. 1:4. Eaten up like garment, Isa. 51:8. Fire shall devour them, Ps. 21:9. Lamp of wicked put out, Prov. 13:9; 24:20. Leave neither root nor branch, Mal. 4:1. Light of wicked be put out, Job 18:5. Melt away as waters, Ps. 58:7. Melt like wax, Ps. 68:2. Name put out forever, Ps. 9:5. Not be, Ps. 37:10; Prov. 12:7. Overthrown, Prov. 12:7. Perish, Ps. 37:20; 49:20; Isa. 41:11, 12. Perish forever, Job 20:7. Pluck thee out, Ps. 52:5. Put away like dross, Ps. 119:119. Put out light, Job 18:5, 6. Put out name forever, Ps. 9:5. Put to death, Lev. 27:29. Quenched as fire of thorns, Ps. 118:12. Quenched as tow, Isa. 43:17. Rain of fire and brimstone, Ps. 11:6. Return to dust, Gen. 3:19; Ps. 104:29. Root out, Ps. 52:5; Prov. 2:22. Roots dried up, Job 18:16. Scattered, Ps. 92:9. See him no more, Job 20:9. Shall not be, Ps. 37:10. Slay, Ps. 34:21; 62:3; 139:19; Isa. 11:4. Stubble taken away by whirlwind, Isa. 40:24. Swallow them up, Ps. 21:9. Tear ... in pieces, Ps. 50:22. Tread down, Ps. 60:12. Turned into hell [she'ol or grave], Ps. 9:17. Utterly consumed, Ps. 37:20 (LXX 72:19). Whirlwind passes, wicked no more, Prov. 10:25. Wither as green herb, Ps. 37:2.” (Froom pp. 109-110).

Froom then indicated that all these expressions [of Doom] are just unfolding or expanding the [Doom] penalty that was given in Eden in Genesis 2:17; 3:19 (Froom, page 110).


Callander’s four categories for Doom: Mode, Result, End, Effect

Froom then cited Anglican R. S. Callander’s four categories of these [Doom] expressions: (1) Mode (Ps. 21:9; Mal. 4:1, 3; cf. Rev. 20:14, 15; Matt. 13:40, 42; 25:41, 46); (2) Result (Ps. 37:28; cf. 2 Peter 2:12; John 3:14, 15); (3) End (Eze. 18:4, 20; Rom. 6:23; Rev. 21:8); (4) Effect (Ps. 55:23; 92:7; 145:20; cf. Matt. 7:13; 10:28) (pages 110-111).


Eternal Torment in Doom critiqued

Side issues are then dealt with by Froom for example the concept of eternal torment and he concluded that “eternal torment [has] no part of [the] death penalty”. There is not a single text claiming eternal torment for the doomed. “The notion of Eternal Torment came out of paganism, as a corollary to the postulate of the universal Innate Immortality of the soul.” (Froom, 1966 page 111). Eternal torment ideas penetrated Judaism around 150 BCE and Christianity after 200 CE (Froom, 1966 page 111).


Biblical evidence of the mode of Doom listed

The mode is fire and Froom listed the texts:

“(Old Testament) Gen. 19:24, 25: Ex. 32:10: Lev. 10:2; Num. 11:1; 16:35: Deut. 32:22. 24; 2 Kings 1:12: Ps. 21:9; 97:3; 140:10; Isa. 1:28, 31; 9:18, 19; 10:16-18: 30:33; 33:11, 12; 47:14; 66:15, 16, 24: Jer. 4:4; 21:12; Lam. 2:3, 4; Eze. 15:6, 7; 21:31, 32: 22:21, 22, 31; 28:18; Amos 5:6; Nahum 1:5, 6; Mal. 4:1. (New Testament) Matt. 3:10, 12; 13:49, 50; 25:41; Luke 17:29, 30; Heb. 6:4-8; 2 Peter 3:7; Jude 1:7. Rev. 20:9, 10, 15. Our God is a consuming fire to the wicked. Heb. 12:29; Ex. 24:17; Deut 4:24, 9:3; Isa. 33:14).” Zephaniah 1 and 2 should also be listed because the destruction in Zephaniah 2:9 is “a desolation forever” = וּשְׁמָמָה עַד-עוֹלָם. In Zephaniah 3:8 “for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of My jealousy” = כִּי בְּאֵשׁ קִנְאָתִי תֵּאָכֵל כָּל-הָאָרֶץ. These “eternal expressions” are not just rhetorical over-reaction or hyperbolic. The Editor, the Holy Spirit do not mislead in His expressions in the Word.


Timeline in punishment in Doom

As far as the time-line of punishment is concerned, the biblical principle is that blessing are for a “thousand generations” while punishment of those who hate Him are “only to the "third and fourth generation" of those who hate Him (Ex. 20:5, 6; Deut. 7:9)”. (Froom).


Torment in Doom is unbiblical

Torment is unbiblical in sacrificial typology; legal codes of Moses. “Death, not torture, as the wages of sin (Rom. 6:23), is consistently set forth in Scripture. The punishment fitted the crime.” (Froom).

Froom indicates that the core of any philosophical discussion should be around “life” and “death” since they are the key issues that unlock the biblical intent to the destiny of man. “Everything turns upon these two antithetical expressions.” (Froom). It is like black and white. “For one to say that death is simply another kind or state of life is like insisting that black is only a variation of white” (Froom).


Life and Death and the Destiny of Humans and Doom

The issues of eternal destiny turn on the intent of Holy Scripture, as seen in the prologue (of Genesis) and in the epilogue (of the Revelation). The terms "life" and "death" are the dual keys that unlock the Biblical intent as to the destiny of man. Everything turns upon these two antithetical expressions. “The usage of Biblical language protests such violence. To die is to cease to live, or exist, not to suffer on forever, simply away from the presence of God, but to keep on living.” (Froom).


Plato and his borrowing of the Immortality of the Soul

In the 10th chapter of his book Republic, in 608c-621d, Plato described the Immortality of the Soul after he travelled Egypt and saw all their mystery religions. Influenced by paganism? Certainly (see Burnet 1915 page 17-18 for earlier examples of Egyptian borrowings of similar ideas). Froom calls it “Platonic perversion of the death as perpetual life” (page 113). In 608c-612a Plato claimed that the soul is immortal. Just a certain evil can kill the body but not the soul. The evil person still lives and for that reason is the soul immortal, he argues. In 612a-613e Plato pointed out that the gods are just and in the judgment the good will be lifted up but the evil will be rejected. He described a vision of the judgment in 613e-621d. Someone died as soldier in a campaign but was allowed to go back to the world of the dead. There he saw judges judging souls that appear before them. He also saw the punishment on the evil. He realized the pattern of the universe is ordained by Fate. He saw in the vision how souls can choose lives for themselves in the next life (reincarnation). Their previous experiences influence their next choice. They drank the water of forgetfulness and lived always. According to internal evidence, Republic VI lines 499b, Republic X with the immortality concept was written after 387 BCE. Between the death of Socrates in 399 BCE and the finding of his Academy in 387 BCE, Plato first travelled to Egypt to Megara and then to Italy and Sicily. Academy for Plato meant to turn your mind away from relativity of earthly things and place it on unchangeable things. Burnet (1915) thought that Socrates in 423 BCE was the first to talk about innate immortality but the sources are meager to substantiate his claims which he also admits. It is more likely that Plato’s trip to Egypt influenced him strongly. As Burnet is investigating the scholar Maier on Socrates and earlier, the understanding of innate immortality of the soul was not part of the heritage of earlier Greek literature.


Innate immortality is unbiblical

“Innate immortality postulate reverses true exegesis” (Froom, 1966 page 114). “[Immortality of the soul is a]… reading into the text of what is not there, and of what is, moreover, fundamentally contrary to the uniform, overwhelming testimony of Scripture.” (Froom, 1966 page 114).


Christ’s death atone not human suffering

Froom also emphasized that Christ’s death and not human sufferings constitutes atoning sacrifice.

There is often, of course, intense suffering with death but always ending in destruction. However, it is not the suffering but the destruction that is the ultimate. Suffering precedes it. Thus it was with the death of Christ, if we are to consider this point at the highest level. There is frequent allusion to His "sufferings" in our behalf. But, dreadful as these were, Christ's sufferings alone did not constitute His atoning death. They were only the accompaniments thereof. Death is ceasing to live. It was the extinction of life in Christ that brought atonement and the suffering terminated in the death (Deuteronomy 28:58-63). All suffering terminate in the final Doom “and comes to nought” (Froom, 1966 page 114).


Death decree to Adam and Eve was total destruction not eternal torment

The death decree of God was total destruction not eternal torment (Froom, 1966 page 114 commenting on Genesis 2:17).

Thus all suffering terminates in final destruction, and comes ends in nothingness. That is the over-all Bible evidence.


Misapplied texts for eternal suffering in the Bible in relation to Doom

Froom then looked at three objection texts that are used to imply eternal suffering: Isaiah 33:14; Isaiah 66:24; and Daniel 12:2.

In Isaiah 33:14 Froom indicated that it refers to the desolation of Palestine by the Assyrians (Isaiah 33:11-12). The fire of verse 12, says Froom, is also the same as the fire of verse 14.

Froom also looked at Isaiah 66:24 talking about carcasses, undying worms and unquenchable fire. He concluded: “The ‘worm’ and the ‘fire’ in this passage can only legitimately symbolize the utter destruction of dead and insensible carcasses or corpses. as expressly stated.”

“Unquenchable fire” refers to “one that must consume and destroy until nothing remains (cf. Jer. 7:20).” (Froom, 1966 page 117). The worms are not given eternal power to exist amids fire or reproduction eternally. Jude 7 indicated that Sodom and Gemorrah was to burn with eternal fire but they are no longer burning. 2 Peter 2:6 said that they were turned into ashes, condemned and overthrown (Froom, 1966 page 117).

The result of the fire is eternal not the fire itself (compare Mark 9:43, 45).


The “worm”and Doom

Froom discussed the worm and Doom: that it is not the “remorse of a tormented conscience” but literal maggots (Hebrew: tola’ [compare Ex. 16:20; Deut. 28:39; Isa. 14:11]). “And it is to be noted that the "worm" is distinct from that upon which it feeds”. The Valley of Hinnom or Tophet with flames and worms may have been intended, is Froom’s suggestion (Froom, 1966 page 118). In the final Doom the worms will feast in a supper (Revelation 19:17, 18)

Said Froom: “Allusions to the "worm" that feeds upon the "carcases," or dead bodies, appear frequently in the Old Testament, and are actually used to exclude all hope of restoration, and to declare that the punishment is eternal and without hope. (See Job 17:14; 19:26; 24:20; Isa. 14:11.)” (Froom, 1966 pages 118-119).

Doom means to be deprived of life not consigned to endless misery (Froom, 1966 page 119).

“It is further argued that in Mark 9:43-48 Christ quotes the last two clauses of Isaiah 66:24 in proof of the eternal sufferings of the wicked in Gehenna, and thus gives divine support to the contention.” (Froom, page 119).

He pointed out however that Christ merely wanted to say that it is better to have one body part severed than to loose one’s soul in Doom. “…the persons whose worm shall not die are those who have been reduced to peger (dead corpses)” (Froom, page 119). Christ emphasized the certainty of extinction.


Resurrection of Good exclude Evil from Eternal Torment

The resurrection of the good in Daniel 12:2 exclude the evil from eternal life. Their resurrection later is just for extinction at the Day of Doom.

The awakening of "some" clearly applies to the resurrection of the righteous, destined to eternal life. As has been shown, those doomed to shame and "everlasting contempt" are excluded from eternal life. Their brief awakening is but for the execution of the judgment. The contempt is felt by the righteous survivors after the judgment and destruction of the contemptible have been meted out.

“Thus the ‘everlasting’ applies to the righteous, and the ‘contempt’ or more accurately ‘abhorrence’ is that of the righteous over the incorrigibly wicked, who perish” (Froom, page 120).

One resurrection will be to life and the other to Doom (Luke 14:14; John 5:28, 29; 1 Cor. 15:23; Rev. 20:4, 5).


Everlasting Abhorence

What is everlasting in these texts is the abhorrence. “the .epithet "everlasting" is not applied to the word "shame" ("abhorrence," R.V., margin) the same Hebrew dera'on used in Isaiah 66:24 in referring to the corpses of the slain that lie unburied. Dera'on means "an object of abhorrence." Hence it is not the subjective conscious ness of the guilty, but the objective abhorrence in which their memory is held by others, that is declared to be everlasting, (cf. Jer. 20:11, R.V.; 23:40).” (Froom 1966 page 105).


Innate Immortality and Eternal Torment is extra-biblical

Froom concluded in the following way: “Obviously, they are "theologizing hand-downs" from Neo-platonic Christian philosophers of the third and fourth centuries. They came from men steeped in the theory of the universal, Innate Immortality of the soul, and its corresponding corollary, the Eternal Torment of the wicked. They are unworthy of valid Christian exegesis. All three contentions collapse under scrutiny.” (page ). Froom pointed out that Tatian and Theopholus of Antioch taught that man is mortal and non-existent in death and made immortal at resurrection and Theopholus claimed that man is created a candidate for immortality (Froom 1966 page 840). 


Doom in Judaism, Christianity and Islam

In all three religions “the ideal word order will come at the end of time, will not be subject to the notion of time, and as such will be both final and eternal” (Sharon, 1989).

Resurrection of the dead in Judaism and Islam is connected to the Day of Judgment (Sharon, 1989 page 127). Adventism too connected the resurrection of the dead to the Judgment but they separate according to Scripture in 1 Peter 4:17 the Investigative Judgment of the saints before the Second Coming from the Executive Day of the Lord Judgment after the 1000 years of Revelation 20 just before eternity starts finally. The reward comes before the punishment in Jesus’ parables as well. Judaism believes that man cannot get requital of his deeds while he is still in a state of death so the time for the resurrection is seen to be at the Judgment (Sharon, page 128). Adventists disagree for the book of Hebrews indicates that Christ is High Priest in heaven for the sins of the sinners replacing the Tabernacle/Temple system in His body. From the cleansing time of the Heavenly Sanctuary mentioned in Daniel 8:14, after the 2300 years [years it must be because 490 are years according to Thomas Aquinas, Luther, Calvin, George Ioye, Hugo Grotius] starting in 457 BCE and ending in 1844, Christ is Advocate for the faithful so that they do not appear in Judgment. Strange that the Reformers and the Catholic Thomas Aquinas started so well with 457 BCE for the 490 years and then fell short of calculating the 2300 days as years of Daniel 8:14? No wonder Adventists are Progressive Reformers!

About Islam Sharon continued: “Although at the beginning of his prophetic activity Muḥammad gave the impression that the Day of Judgment was near and impeding, he was soon obliged to make it clear that final judgment and the ultimate reward and punishment would be some time in the future in God’s own good time and subject to His will” (Sharon, 1989 page 140).


Doom in Ancient Near Eastern Texts

The work of J. Niehaus (2008) focused on the role of several theological topics in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Hittites and other nations and how biblical authors related to that. The problem with Niehaus’ approach is this: the evolution of world events is not like he postulates it to be, from polytheism to monotheism but the other way around. It is also not from sinfulness to attempts to get rid of it but the other way around: from sinlessness of Adam and Eve walking directly with God daily in the evening to a sin-ridden world and human attempts to get absolved from their guilt in order to control their self-invented gods to be blamed for their pain and suffering daily. God’s true revelation deteriorated from Adam to Noah and the Flood (2692 BCE) came as an evolution of sin. True Theology, that is a symbol of Truth, handed by God, became degenerated Ancient Near Eastern theological simulation of truths that never existed. Correlation studies (like Babel-Bibel) end in parallelomania if this essential biblical focus is ignored. The Hebrews influenced other nations around them initially and not other nations the Hebrews first. Whereas the Book of Adam and Noah reached all the way back to the Creation of the World, all cuneiform and pyramid texts date only after the Flood in 2692 BCE. Writing is considered to be no older than 4500 years according to evidence. But, the sources used by Moses to write Genesis 1-11, like the Book of Adam (Genesis 5:1 and the Book of Noah (Genesis 6:4) are going earlier than the earliest writing outside the Bible.

The Hittites legal system and sacrificial system as well as poetry from Ugarit correspond very closely to phraseology in the Old Testament, why? Because they were the closest to Israel and were affected by Moses’ classic literature earlier in 1448ff BCE. Later Mesopotamia and later Egyptian literature corresponds very close to Israelite Old Testament literature like the Wisdom of Amenemope and Proverbs and the Enuma Elish and Creation or the Gilgamesh Epic and the Flood. The reality is that all these texts dates to 650 BCE when Israel was in Mesopotamia and Egypt due to the exile of 723 BCE. The Rebellion in Heaven Motif is illustrated by the Legend of the Worm published by R. Thompson but this incantation text was used by dentists of those days to portray the eventual doom of evil when the worm is killed that is taken from the cavity. The line read: “Fix the pin [of the dentist] and seize its [worm in the cavity of the tooth] foot because you have said this, o worm, may Ea [earth god] smite you with the might of his hand.” This text is also from the Niniveh library of Ashurbanipal and dating to 650 BCE with Hebrew scribes working in the copy-rooms there. One cannot miss the motif of Isaiah 14:12-14 here and the Fall of Lucifer.

 Again Hebrew influence over outside cultures’ literature. Textual and literary criticism of the Ancient Near Eastern texts, hardly done in consensus scholarship, display a meagerness of correspondences with the Old Testament in these last listed examples. Proximity leads to corresponding assimilation of content in cultural exchange. Doom in Ancient Near Eastern texts must be investigated with this axiom or otherwise reality is ignored and results are fictitious.


Doom and Amos

Amos the prophet wrote about Doom lining up a number of territorial areas around and over Israel and Transjordan. The Lord is roaring from Zion (Amos 1:1) and Rashi said it is from the Holy of Holies. The heavenly one is in mind since it is eschatological.

Damascus will suffer in the hell because of what they did to the Gileadites (Amos 1:3). Cruelty and violence will see each other in hell. Christ said to Amos "I will not return Us". The pronoun first person plural is a sign that the Trinity is in mind here. Judaism missed this point and one can see it in the comment by Middle Age Jewish commentator Rashi where he fluctuate between him and them for the same first person plural suffix in the Hebrew original us. The deeds of Damascus are written in books and will not pass the scrutiny of the investigative judgment since "fire" is reserved for the executive judgment.

Gaza is also on God's list of violence loving people. They took the people of Israel and handed them to Edom. The same Hell event or fire is waiting for them "and I will send fire into the wall of Gaza" (Amos 1:7).

Tyre or modern Beirut is also on the list of problematic cities listed by God scheduled for the fire of Hell (Amos 1:9). They did the same as Gaza and delivered Israelites to Edom. Fire of Hell will be sent (Amos 1:10).

Edom is also listed as a hot-spot of violence: they pursued the faithful with the sword and passed over them (Amos 1:11). Fire of Hell will burn in Teman, far south of the Dead Sea (Amos 1:12).

The next hot spot of violence selected by the Lord is Ammon (Amos 1:13). For the sake of landgrabbing they ribbed open pregnant women of Gilead (Amos 1:13). Fire of Hell is also reserved for them (Amos 1:14).

Moab is also a hotspot of violence mentioned by the Lord (Amos 2;1). He acted violent against Edom (Amos 2:1). Fire of Hell is reserved also for Moab (Amos 2:2). The shophar shall sound and the judge and rulers will be cut off (Amos 2;3).

The fire of Hell is also against Judah (Amos 2:4, 5). Judah rejected the Law of God; they did not keep His statutes (Amos 2;4). Their lies misled them and their forefathers followed it.

Then the Lord listed Israel for the fire of Hell (Amos 2:6) for they sell an innocent man for money; a poor man in order to landgrab (Amos 2:6); they pervert the way of the humble; sex offenses of father and son with the servants and profane the Holy Name of God (Amos 2:7). They recline of pledged garments next to altars meaning that people got loans from them with garments given as surety of paying back. The wine of the fined ones they drink in the house of their gods (Amos 2:8). Even though the Amorites were tall in front of them, the Lord destroyed them before the Israelites in the past (Amos 2:9). God brought them out of Egypt (Amos 2:10) in 1450 BCE. They inherited the land of the Amorites (Amos 2:10). Some were prophets and some were Nazirites (Amos 2:11). They gave wine to the Nazirites (Amos 2:12) and they forced the prophets not to prophecy (Amos 2:12). Their houses will be destroyed, their waggons full of foodstuffs destroyed, if they escape they shall not be able to survive and the strong will feel weak, and mighty men shall not be able to deliver themselves (Amos 2:14). Weapon holders will not be able to stand and those on foot not be delivered and the rider of the horse shall not be able to get away. The arrogant of the mighty shall flee naked on that day (Amos 2:16). The messages of Amos started with Damascus in the north then down to the south at Gaza, then north to Tyre and then south to Edom, then north to Ammon and then south to Moab over to Judah and then finally north to Israel. Amos indicated that God is not interested in ethnic Israel.

It is about a love relationship "only you did I love above all the families of the earth, therefore I will visit upon you all your iniquities" (Amos 3:2). A list of animals and birds are given and they are all describe relational to a prey. Lion and his prey (Amos 3:4); a young lion and something to eat; a bird and something in the snare; a net moving because of an animal caught (Amos 3:5). A sophar sound and people shake in like manner, history is in control of God (Amos 3:6). "for the Lord God does nothing unless He has revealed His secret to His servants, the prophets" (Amos 3:7). A lion roar and people fear should be a simulation to God speaking and someone prophesying (Amos 3:8).

In the Hell event the Lord will visit the transgressions of Israel upon them (Amos 3:14). The horns of the altars at Bethel will be cut off and fall to the earth and the winter and summer houses will be smitten as well as the ivory houses lost. Great houses shall end (Amos 3:14-15).

These are not local fires but a reference to the exterminating fire of the Hell event or the Doom event for the Holy Spirit is not a liar and do not deceive by description through the prophets. When absolute terms are used, they will be in one telic event and not periodically.


Fall of cities or empires or paradigms in the Ancient Near East

The earth was destroyed by a worldwide flood or doom due to violence in 2592 BCE. The Mosaic influenced Hebrew scribe copy of the Gilgamesh Epic made the Flood come due to a god that could not sleep for humanity was too noisy. Moses 1460 BCE, Gilgamesh Epic copy 650 BCE. Who plagiarized whom?

The biblical dealing of a doom case is Sodom and Gemorrah being destroyed around 2149 BCE.

The Lamentation of Ur is about the fall of Ur at the end of the Ur III dynasty or empire in 2004 BCE. The fall is divinely engineered.

This was the case with many doomed cities. Every time they fell it is because God in His divine agenda thought it to be necessary to do so.

The Bible work with multiple “Babylons”. This was the discovery of S. Dalley in cuneiform texts that even Niniveh was called “Babylon”. The Sumerian KA.DINGIR.RA.KI is the Akkadian Bab-ilu ki. It means “Gate of the god (city) or “gate of the city of god”. In Akkadian it means “gate of the gods (city)” or “gate of the city of the gods”. Dalley and other scholars before her like T. Abusch demonstrated from cuneiform texts that Niniveh, Borsippa, Eridu, Ku’ara, Kish, Kullab, all were called “Babylon” (Dalley 2005 page 26). This early habit of calling any empire’s main city “a Babylon” is also to explain why Niniveh, Calah, Assur and Arbela were known as “Babylons”. Dalley also explained that Babylon, Kish, Nippur, Niniveh, Duru, Uruk, Akkad, Arbela and Assur all shared this concept that the particular city was the place where the god of the temple of the city is a cord that connected heaven and earth and secondly, all that is crucial for the future of the world was from here (Dalley 2005 page 31). Egyptians knew Babylon by the name barbar or brbr. Besides the Lamentations of cities like Uruk, Isin, Larsa in earlier times, the Kassite Babylon is also Babylon. With the Egyptian empire, their capitals were also Babylon and in 1450 BCE was the fall of the “gate of the gods” Egypt with the Exodus by Moses. Each time an empire is “doomed” there is a fall. Niniveh (612 BCE) fell and there is reference to that fall also in the prophets. Since Dalley proved that Niniveh was also Babylon it is thus methodologically right to superimpose this over each empire or city mentioned as enemy of God. Damascus in 800 BCE; Tyre in Isaiah 14; Babylon at various scriptural passages in the Bible in 539 BCE; Shushan is Babylon in the Medo-Persian empire; Fall of Athens which is the Babylon of Greece; the Fall of Rome in 538 BCE finally with the handover of Justinian of politics to theology; Fall of the Vatican empire at end of a 1260 year period [see prophets in Daniel 7, 8 and Revelation 12, 13] in 1798 with Berthier the general of Napoleon arresting the pope. All these cities falling is really a symbolic “Babylon” falling. Another Revelation 18 Babylon is to fall in the eschaton. They are all doomed by divine decree and predicted in prophecies.



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