Devotional Commentary on Nahum 3


Anyone reading Nahum 3 cannot avoid saying that it depicts in prophecy the fall of Niniveh in 612 BCE. Niniveh was the capital of Assyria. Sennacherib built some palaces there and he was murdered by his two oldest sons. Esarhaddon then took over and he had a strong interest in divination texts. From his earliest age he was very religious and use to read extispicy, astrology, physiognomy, the interpretation of terrestrial signs. The main reason is that he lived with a phobia to be assassinated or killed by man or the gods and so if he focused on pagan prophecies or fortune-telling, he would be able to avoid been killed. So he developed a substitute-ritual so that if the gods says that he would be killed on a certain day, he sent this substitute in his place to survive this presumed prediction ordeal. His son took over in 668 BCE, Ashurbanipal and he also studied very well. He knew Sumerian texts from before the Flood, but that cannot be true since all texts before the Flood in 2692 BCE were destroyed by World catastrophe. But he can know the texts after the Flood. Nevertheless those Sumerian texts were in a different orthography than those of the Ur III period starting in 2112 BCE. It was quite an achievement. An excellent description of these kings ability with divine texts theology and languages, see the description by Frahm, E., 2013, A Short History of Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries,” Cuneiform Commentaries Project (E. Frahm, E. Jiménez, M. Frazer, and K. Wagensonner), 20132017; accessed December 29, 2017, at

They had large libraries at Niniveh in the North Palace, the Nabu Temple, the Ishtar Temple and the South-west Palace complex. When the cuneiform texts were found they were in a layer of about 40cmm thick and broken.

The truth about Niniveh, before we read its condemnation by the Lord, is that second and fourth generation Hebrews were living and working in these libraries copying many of the texts that were found after Botta, Layard and others. Frahm spent time in analyzing the comparison in commentary writing at Niniveh and Qumrans pesharim. This is fruitful since the Hebrews lived in Niniveh since 723 BCE. By 612 BCE with its destruction they have been there over a century.

A principle that we have to spell out here is this: the Fall of Niniveh = the Fall of Babylon. Wait a minute, you say. Where did you get this from? Another study by a famous cuneiform specialist Stephanie Dalley in RAI 51 with the study: Babylon as a Name for Niniveh and Other Cities (

Babylon means in Sumerian KA.DINGIR.RA.KI and in Akkadian bab-ilu ki. It means gate of the god (city). It is the city of the gate of the god. In Akkadian it means gate of the gods [city]. And this is the problem with all empires through the centuries that they became a gate for the gods. When Ur III fell in 2004 BCE a lamentation was written mourning this disaster. It was the Babylon of its time. In the Cassite empire, Babylon was Babylon. When Israel left Egypt, Egypt was Babylon in 1450 BCE. In 800 BCE Damascus was Babylon. In Isaiah 14 is the description of the Fall of Tyre in a mode similar to the Fall of Lucifer. Niniveh fell in 612 BCE. It was also the Babylon says Stephanie Dalley. Babylon fell in 539 BCE. Shushan fell in 333 BCE. It was also Babylon. Athens fell in 60 BCE and it was also the gate of the gods or Babylon. Rome fell in 538 BCE although scholars like to use 476 CE. Rome was also Babylon as Peter said in 1 Peter 5:13. The Vatican is also Babylon as one can see between 538-1798 BCE. The tough part is this: the USA as second beast of Revelation 13 is technically also the gate of the gods due to its embracing attitude of all gods.

So Nahum saw the Fall of Niniveh and certain descriptions are going to be the same as those of other cities that also fell due to the Lords decision.

It is very clear from the cuneiform texts that survived the onslaught of Niniveh in 612 BCE, that these final kings were concerned in making Niniveh great again but with the help of the gods and not against them. The irony is that they consulted the wrong gods.

Esarhaddon was selected by Sennacherib as heir to the throne although he was younger than the brothers who would kill their father. There was a rebellion in the palace and Esarhaddon described his brothers attitude: Thereafter my brothers went mad doing everything that is wicked in the eyes of the gods and man, plotting evil.

When Tirhaka came, Esarhaddon wanted to go against him in a war in his seventh year. He consulted the gods whether it will be successful and the highpriest confirmed. However, Tirhaka, the African, defeated him and now Esarhaddon was confused: did the Highpriest made a mistake or did the king sin? This was the confusion. Many letters were written to the king that the gods must be crazy. This habit of consulting the gods for the future events characterized all the last kings of Niniveh. Except they did not listen to Nahum the prophet of the true God.

Woe to the city of blood (verse 1). Niniveh was a city of violent acts in war as the iconography indicates on the walls of the palaces. There would be sounds of defeat (verse 2). Horses and the blades of swords are images that Nahum saw (verse 3). Many corpses heaped-up. The reason is the harlotries of woman ordination who served as priestesses charming, enchanting (verse 4). The Lord is against these priestesses and He would uncover their skirts upon their faces (verse 5). Detestable things would be cast upon them (verse 6). All who saw Niniveh will say Niniveh has been plundered (verse 7). Then follows a list of cities that were plundered before in history to show that Niniveh as empire cannot claim exceptions.

No-Amon is seen as Memphis which was R`-Amon. It was situated with waters around it. The Cushites were their strength and Egypt. Helpers were from Put and Lubim which may be another word for Libya. Memphis went into exile as well. It was destroyed (verse 10). The young were dashed to death on the streets, dignitaries were taken away and great men bound in chains (verse 10). It is not a good picture.

Niniveh shall have a similar evil result (verse 11).

All the fortresses of Niniveh were like first-ripe figs that easily fall off if the tree is shaken (verse 12).

The people are like woman in the city (verse 13). The gates shall be opened for the enemies. They need water and strengthening of the city (verse 14). Fire shall consume them and the sword and they shall be destroyed like nibbling locusts (verse 15). They had many traffickers in Niniveh since it was a cosmopolitan city (verse 16). Their princes, and armies will fly away and no one knows where they are (verse 17). The leaders are slumbering (verse 18). The people are scattered on the mountains and there is no-one to gather them (verse 18).

No one cries over their destruction. All who hear the report of the destruction of Niniveh clap hands over you. What Niniveh did to other nations now in 612 BCE came over them. Once they were the instrument of God inflicting punishment on Israel but now the wheel has turned and God inflicted punishment on them. This is a lesson for all rulers of the current world. To be too selfconfident in always victory and always favor by God for all actions, no matter how violent, evil, destructive, will not go unnoticed by the Almighty.


Dear God

Your Hand is over all nations and they are dust in Your control. The Remnant put their lives in Your Hand for their safety and security. In Jesus Name. Amen.